September 18, 2018

The importance of automation and robots in all of the manufacturing industries is growing. Industrial robots have replaced human beings within a wide selection of industries. Robots out perform humans in jobs that require precision, speed, endurance and reliability. Robots safely perform dirty and dangerous jobs. Traditional manufacturing robotic applications include material handling (pick and put), assembling, painting, welding, packaging, palletizing, product inspection and testing. Industrial robots are employed inside a diverse selection of industries including automotive, electronics, medical, food production, biotech, pharmaceutical and machinery.

The ISO definition of a manipulating industrial robot is “an automatically controlled, reprogrammable, multipurpose manipulator”. According to the definition it is usually fixed in place or mobile for use in industrial automation applications. These industrial robots are programmable in 3 or more axes. These are multi-functional devices which can be custom-built and programmed to carry out a number of operations.

The main aspects of industrial robots is because they might be programmed to suit industry specific requirements which enable it to work continuously for many years, consistently meeting high manufacturing quality standards. The economical expected life associated with an industrial robot is around 12-16 years. This can persistent accuracy industrial robots have become a vital part of manufacturing.

Industrial robots are categorized into different categories determined by their mechanical structure. The key categories of industrial robots are:

Gantry (Cartesian) Robot: They may be stationary robots having three components of motion. They work from an overhead grid with a rectangular work envelope. These are mainly used to perform ‘pick and place’ actions. Gantry robots supply their axes over the work which makes them also ideal for dispensing applications.
SCARA Robots: (Selectively Compliant Articulated Robot Arm) These robots have 4 axes of movement. They move inside an x-y-z coordinated circular work envelope. They are used for factory automation requiring pick and put work, application and assembly operations and handling machine tools.
Articulated robots: An articulated robot has rotary joints. It might have from two to ten or maybe more interactive joints. Articulated robots are well suited to welding, painting and assembly.

Basic industrial robot designs could be customized with the addition of different peripherals. End effectors, optical systems, and motion controllers are very important add-ons. End effectors will be the end-of-arm-tooling (EOAT) attached with robotic arms. Grippers or wrenches which are employed to move or assemble parts are instances of end effectors. End effectors are created and employed to sense and communicate with the external environment. The end effectors’ design is determined by the application form requirements of the specific industry. Machine Vision systems are robotic optical systems. These are built-on digital input/output devices and computer networks employed to control other manufacturing equipment including robotic arms. Machine vision is utilized for that inspection of manufactured goods including semiconductor chips. Motion controllers are widely-used to move robots and position stages smoothly and accurately with sub-micron repeatability.

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